PhD thesis defense
The procedure is chaired by a Docent from the same department as the respondent. During the defense the respondent first presents the research work, this is followed by the opponent's presentation, questions and discussion between respondent and opponent. Thereafter the evaluation committee is invited to ask questions, and finally the audience is allowed to ask questions.
Licentiate thesis defense
A Licentiate defense has no chair or opponent. After the thesis has been presented by the respondent the evaluation committee asks questions, and finally the audience is allowed to ask questions.
For both types of defenses, the evaluation committee convenes behind closed doors immediately after the defense and, once a decision has been reached, announces the outcome directly to the respondent.