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Massimiliano Cardinale

Massimiliano Cardinale
PhD in Marine Ecology


Dr. Cardinale has a very wide educational curriculum being holder of a Master in Biological Science as well as a PhD in Marine Ecology. Full CV available here.

Dr. Cardinale has an excellent experience in marine fisheries stock assessment and management and international cooperation in the fisheries ecology sector, having more than 20 years of professional experience in the field of fisheries biology and ecology and more than 15 years of professional experience in the field of management of fisheries at national regional and global levels.

Particularly significant is his 20 years' experience as the Swedish National Board of Fisheries and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences as senior scientist in charge for the assessment of the most important stocks of both the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. His activity includes statistical analysis, stock assessment, modelling, data managing, and otolith science. Also quite significant is his 10 years experience within the fisheries ecology sector in Asia and in Africa under different SIDA projects. He is also member of the IOTC (Indian Ocean Tuna Commission) since 2015.

He is currently a nominated member of ACOM (under ICES) and STECF vice-chair (under DG-MARE at EU commission) committees for fisheries and marine resource management since 2002. He has participated in more than 80 different working groups under ICES and more than 50 working groups under DG MARE. He has been chairman of more than 20 different working groups under both ICES and DG MARE umbrella, particularly SGMED, which is the Group responsible since 2008 for stock assessment of Mediterranean fisheries resources and the Group responsible for stock assessment of Black Sea fisheries resources since 2015. In 2011, 2013, 2014 and 2015 he has been invited as reviewer by the USA Center for Independent Expert (CIE).

Thanks to his long term experience in the marine ecology and fisheries sector, Dr. Cardinale has been recently nominated official member of the Editorial Board of the prestigious International Journal Applied Ichthyology. He has more than 90 publications on international journals, including books, on numerous aspects of fisheries ecology as stock assessment, modelling and analysis of historical data. He has also produced several working reports, presented more than 35 lectures and has more than 100 hours of academic activity in different universities.

Dr. Cardinale is also engaged in research activities of bird migration and he is since 2002 the Director of the Bird Migration Research Center on Ponza Island, Italy (


Current research 

Stock assessment and fisheries management

Global project (assessment and management of tuna stock around the world)

Small Island project -long term monitoring of migratory populations of transharian small passerines

Selected publications

Colloca, F., Cardinale, M., Ardizzone, G.D. (2003). Structure and diversity of demersal assemblages in the central Mediterranean Sea in relation to macrobenthic communities distribution. Costal and Estuarin Shelf Ecology, 56: 469-480.

Cardinale, M., Doering, P., Moosegard, H. and Kaskowsky, M. (2004). Effects of sex, stock and environment on the shape of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 61: 158-168.  

Casini, M., Cardinale, M., and Arrhenius, F. (2004). Feeding preferences of herring and sprat in the southern Baltic Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 61: 1267-1277.

Carpentieri P., Colloca F., Cardinale M., Belluscio A., Ardizzone G.D. (2004). Factors influencing the feeding habits ontogenesis of the European Hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the Central Mediterranean Sea. Fisheries Bulletin, 103: 411-416.

Casini, M., Cardinale, M., Hjelm, J. and Vitale, F. and (2005). Trends in biomass and related changes in spatial distribution of demersal fish species in Kattegat and Skagerrak, eastern North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 671-682.  

Vitale, F., Cardinale, M. and Svedeng, H. (2005). Evaluation of the temporal development of the ovaries in cod (Gadus morhua) from the Sound and Kattegat. Journal of Fish Biology, 67: 669-683.  

Vitale, F., Svedäng, H. and Cardinale, M. (2006). Histological analysis invalidates maturity ogives of cod (Gadus morhua) based on visual inspections. Optimization of maturity surveys and use of alternative criteria in estimating maturity. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 485-492.  

Hultgren, M., Hjelm J. and Cardinale M. (2006). Water uptake in herring (Clupea harengus) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) as a function of area, salinity and fat content. Fisheries Research, 94-99.  

Casini, M., Cardinale M. and Hjelm J. (2006). Inter-annual variation of herring (Clupea harengus) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) condition in the central Baltic Sea: what gives the tune? Oikos, 112: 638-650.  

Cardinale, M and Hjelm, J. (2006). Marine fish recruitment variability and climate indices. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 309: 307-309.  

Costantini, D., Cardinale M., Carere C. (2006). Oxidative damage and anti-oxidant capacity in two migratory bird species at a stop-over site. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 144: 363-371.  

Doering, P., Cardinale, M., Moosegard, H. (2008). Use of otolith shape, otolith morphometrics and fish biometrics to predict age: Ageing fish faster, a proof with known age fish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 65: 2342–2350.  

Cardinale, M. and Svedäng, H. (2008). Mismanagement of fisheries: policy or science? Fisheries Research, doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2008.05.010.  

Casini, M., Lövgren, J., Hjelm, J., Cardinale M., Molinero, J.-C., and Kornilovs,  G. (2008). Multi-level trophic cascades in a heavily exploited open marine ecosystem. Proceeding of the Royal Society B doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1752.  

Cardinale, M., Mölmann, C., Bartolino, V., Casini, M., Kornilovs, G., Raid, T., Margonski, P., Raitaniemi, L., and Gröhsler, T. (2009). Climate and parental effects on the recruitment of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 388: 221-234.

Casini, M., Hjelm, J., Molinero, J.-C., Lövgren, J., Cardinale, M., Bartolino, V., Belgrano, A., and Kornilovs, G. (2009). Trophic cascades promote threshold-like shifts in pelagic marine ecosystems: the Baltic Sea case. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 106: 197-202.  

Cardinale, M., Linder, M., Bartolino, V., Maiorano, L., (2009). Conservation value of historical data: reconstructing stock dynamic of turbot (Psetta maxima) during the last century in the Eastern North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 386: 197–206.  

Cardinale, M., Nugroho, D. and Hernroth L. (2009). Reconstructing historical trend in abundance of small pelagic fish species in the Java Sea using standardized commercial trip based catch per unit of effort. Fishery Research, doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2009.05.015.  

Fusani, L., Cardinale, M., Carere, C., & Goymann W. (2009). Stopover decision during migration: physiological conditions predict nocturnal restlessness in wild passerines. Biology Letters, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0755.  

Cardinale, M., Hagberg, J., Svedäng, H., Bartolino, V., Gedamke , T., Hjelm, J., Börjesson, P., and Norén, F. (2010). Fishing through time: population dynamics of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Kattegat-Skagerrak over a century. Population Ecology, 52:251–262, DOI 10.1007/s10144-009-0177-x.  

Svedäng, H., Stål, J., Sterner, T. & Cardinale, M. (2010). Consequences of subpopulation structure on fisheries management: cod (Gadus morhua) in the Kattegat and Öresund (North Sea). Reviews in Fisheries Science, 18(2):1–9.  

Cardinale, M., Bartolino, V., Llope, M., Maiorano, L., Sköld, M., and Hagberg, J. (2011). Historical spatial baselines in conservation and management of marine resources. Fish and Fisheries, 12:289-298, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00393.x.  

Svedäng, H., Cardinale, M. & André, C. (2011). Recovery of former fish productivity: philopatric behaviours put depleted stocks in an unforeseen deadlock. In: Ecosystem Based Management for Marine Fisheries: An Evolving Perspective, Belgrano, A., Fowler, C.W. (eds), Cambridge University Press, pp. 232-247.  

Fusani, L., Cardinale, M., Schwabl, I. and Goymann, W. (2011). Food availability and not melatonin affects nocturnal restlessness in wild migrating passerines. Hormones and Behavior, 59: 187-192,  

Cardinale, M., Nugroho, D., and Jonson, P. (2011). Serial depletion of fishing grounds in an unregulated, open access fishery: A case study of the Java sea small pelagic seine fishery (1990–2009). Fisheries Research, doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2010.12.007.  

Casini, M., Kornilovs, G., Cardinale, M., Möllmann, C., Grygiel, W., Jonsson, P., Kaljuste, O., Raid, T., Plikshs, M., Ojaveer, H. and Feldman, V. (2011). Spatial and temporal density dependence regulates the condition of central Baltic Sea clupeids: compelling evidence using an extensive international acoustic survey. Population Ecology, 53:511–523, DOI 10.1007/s10144-011-0269-2.  

Cardinale, M. and Svedäng, H. (2011). The beauty of simplicity in science: the Baltic cod stock improves rapidly in a “cod hostile” ecosystem state. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 425: 297–301, doi: 10.3354/meps09098.  

Colloca, F., Cardinale, M., Giannoulaki, M., Scarcella, G., Jenko, K., Fiorentino, F., Bellido J.M., Maynou, F., (2011). Rebuilding Mediterranean fisheries: toward a new paradigm for ecological sustainability in single species population models. Fish and Fisheries, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00453.x.  

Cardinale M. (2011). Fishery reform: most stocks secure. Nature 476, 282 (2011), doi:10.1038/476282a.  

Cardinale, M. and Hjelm, J. (2012). Short term loss and long term revenue in a size-selective fishery. Marine Policy, 36: 903–906.  

Lloreta, J., Faliexb, E., Shulmanc, G. E. Ragad, J-A., Sasale, P., Muñoza, M., Casadevalla, M., Ahuir-Barajad, A.E., Monterod, F. E., Repullés-Albeldad, A., Cardinale, M., Rätz, H-J., Vilaa, S., Ferrer, D., (2012). Fish health and fisheries, implications for stock assessment and management: the Mediterranean example. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 20(3): 165–180, DOI: 10.1080/10641262.2012.695817.  

Bartolino V., Cardinale, M., Svedäng, H., Linderholm, H.W., Casini, M., Grimwall A., (2012). Historical spatiotemporal dynamics of eastern North Sea cod. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 69(5): 833-841, 10.1139/f2012-028.  

Cardinale, M., Svedäng, H., Bartolino, V., Maiorano, L., Casini, M., Hjelm, J. Linderholm H. (2012). Spatial and temporal depletion of haddock and pollack during the last century in the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 1-12, doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0426.2012.01937.x.  

Kraak, S., Bailey, N., Cardinale, M., Darby, C., De Oliveira, J., Eero, M., Graham, N., Holmes, S., Jakobsen, T., Kempf, A., Kirkegaard, E., Powell, J., Scott, R., Simmonds, J., Ulrich, C., Vanhee, W., Vinther, M., (2012). Lessons for fisheries management from the EU cod recovery plan. Marine Policy,  

Cardinale M., Doerner H., Abella, A., Andersen, J. L., Casey, J., Döring, R., Kirkegaard, E., Motova, A., Anderson, J., Simmonds E. J. and Stransky C., (2012). Rebuilding EU fish stocks and fisheries, a process under way? Marine Policy, 39: 43-52.  

Beggs, S., Cardinale, M., Gowen R. J. and Bartolino, V., (2013). Linking cod (Gadus morhua) and climate: investigating variability in Irish Sea cod recruitment. Fisheries Oceanography, doi:10.1111/fog.12043.  

Ulrich, C., Gatti, P., Boje, J., Cardinale, M., Miller, D. C. M., Nielsen, E.E., Jacobsen, J.B., Andersen, S. B., Andersen, M., Bastardie, F., Belgrano, A., Jonsson, P., Sköld, M., Rijnsdorp, A., (2013). Variability and connectivity of plaice populations from the Eastern North Sea to the Western Baltic Sea, and their consequences for assessment and management. Journal of Sea Research, 84 (2013) 40–48.  

Sundelöf, A., Bartolino, V., Ulmestrand, M., and Cardinale, M., (2013). Multi-annual fluctuations in reconstructed historical time-series of a European Lobster (Homarus gammarus) population disappear at increased exploitation levels. PLoS ONE, 8(4): e58160. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058160.  

Wikstrom, A., Knape, J., Casini, M., Gardmark, A., Cardinale, M., Hjelm, J., Jonzen, N., (2015). Fishing, reproductive volume and regulation: population dynamics and exploitation of the eastern Baltic cod. Population Ecology, DOI 10.1007/s10144-015-0520-3.  

Bartolino, V., Margonski, P., Lindegren, M., Linderholm, H., Cardinale, M., Rayner, D., Wennhage, H., Casini, M., (2014). Predicting fish stock dynamics under climate change: Baltic herring as a case study. Fisheries Oceanography, 23: 258-269.  

Cardinale M., Bartolino, V., Svedäng, H., Sundelöf, A. Poulsen, R. T., Casini, M. (2014). A centurial development of the North Sea fish megafauna as reflected by the historical Swedish longlining fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, doi: 10.1111/faf.12074.  

Vølstad, J.H., Santana Afonso, P., Baloi, A.P., de Premegi, N., Meisfjord J. and Cardinale, M., (2014). Probability-based survey techniques for monitoring catch and effort in the coastal small-scale fisheries in Mozambique. Fisheries Research, 151, 39–46.  

Munk, P., Cardinale, M., Casini, M., Rudolphi, A.C. (2014). The community structure of over-wintering larval and small juvenile fish in a large estuary. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 139. 27-39.  

Cardinale, M., Casini, M., Chacate, O., I. Chauca (2014). Trend analysis of the Mozambique artisanal fisheries using standardised commercial trip based catch per unit of effort. Scientia Marina, 78(1): 55-64.  

Linderholm, H. W. Cardinale, M., Chen, D., Bartolino, V., and Svedäng, H. (2014). Climatic influences on the recruitment of three fish species in the Skagerrak/Kattegat over the last century. Journal of Marine System, 134:1-11.

Eero, M., Hjelm, J., Behrens, J., Buchmann, K., Cardinale M, Casini, M., Gasyukov, P., Holmgren, N., Horbowy, J., Hüssy, K., Kirkegaard, E., Kornilovs, G., Krumme, U., Köster, F.W., Oeberst, R., Plikshs, M., Radtke, K., Raid, T., Schmidt, J., Tomczak, M.T., Vinther, M., Zimmermann C. and Storr-Paulsen, M. 2015. Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsv109.  

Skrip, M.M., Bauchinger, U., Goymann, W., Fusani, L., Cardinale M., Alan R.R. and McWilliams, S.R. 2015. Linking oxidative status and fuel stores of migratory songbirds on stopover: the importance of flight distance. Ecology and Evolution, doi: 10.1002/ece3.1601.  

Lupi, S., Goymann, W., Cardinale M., Fusani, L., 2015. Physiological conditions influence stopover behaviour of short-distance migratory passerines. Journal of Ornithology, J Ornithol DOI 10.1007/s10336-015-1303-5.  

Engelhard, G.H., Thurstan, R.H., MacKenzie, B.R. Alleway, H.K., Colin, R., Bannister, A., Cardinale M., Clarke, M.W., Currie, J.C., Fortibuoni, T., Holm, P., Holt, S.J., Mazzoldi, C., Pinnegar, J.K., Raicevich, S., Volckaert, F.A.M., Klein, E.S. and Lescrauwaet, A-K. 2015. ICES meets marine historical ecology: placing the history of fish and fisheries in current policy context. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsv219.  

Svedäng, H., and Cardinale, M., 2016. Comment on stock assessment of eels in the Baltic by Westerberg and Wickström (2015): do we need more unknowns?. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 73 (6): 1610-1612.

Rindorf, A., Cardinale, M., Shephard, S., De Oliveira, J.A.A., Hjorleifsson, E., Kempf, A., Luzenczyk, A., Millar, C., Miller, D.C.M., Needle, C.L., Simmonds, J., Vinther, M. 2016. Fishing for MSY: can ‘pretty good yield’ ranges be used without impairing recruitment? ICES Journal of Marine Science, DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw111.

Ivan Maggini, Fernanda M. Tahamtani, Massimiliano Cardinale, Leonida Fusani, Claudio Carere 2017. Body temperature upon mist netting procedures in three species of migratory songbirds at a stopover site: implications for welfare. Animal Welfare, conditionally accepted.


Researcher at the Department of Aquatic Resources; Institute of Marine Research, joint staff
Telephone: +46104784014, +46761268005
Postal address:
Turistgatan 5
453 30 LYSEKIL
Visiting address: Turistgatan 5, Lysekil